Maryellen L. Giger

Research Summary
Maryellen L. Giger, Ph.D. is the A.N. Pritzker Distinguished Service Professor of Radiology, Committee on Medical Physics, and the College at the University of Chicago. She is also the Vice-Chair of Radiology (Basic Science Research) and the immediate past Director of the CAMPEP-accredited Graduate Programs in Medical Physics/ Chair of the Committee on Medical Physics at the University. For over 30 years, she has conducted research on computer-aided diagnosis, including computer vision, machine learning, and deep learning, in the areas of breast cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, lupus, and bone diseases. Over her career, she has served on various NIH, DOD, and other funding agencies’ study sections, and is now a member of the NIBIB Advisory Council of NIH. She is a former president of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine and a former president of the SPIE (the International Society of Optics and Photonics) and was the inaugural Editor-in-Chief of the SPIE Journal of Medical Imaging. She is a member of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and was awarded the William D. Coolidge Gold Medal from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, the highest award given by the AAPM. She is a Fellow of AAPM, AIMBE, SPIE, SBMR, IEEE, and IAMBE, a recipient of the EMBS Academic Career Achievement Award, and a Hagler Institute Fellow at Texas A&M University. In 2013, Giger was named by the International Congress on Medical Physics (ICMP) as one of the 50 medical physicists with the most impact on the field in the last 50 years. In 2018, she received the iBIO iCON Innovator award. She has more than 200 peer-reviewed publications (over 300 publications), has more than 30 patents and has mentored over 100 graduate students, residents, medical students, and undergraduate students. Her research in computational image-based analyses of breast cancer for risk assessment, diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy has yielded various translated components, and she is now using these image-based phenotypes, i.e., these “virtual biopsies” in imaging genomics association studies for discovery. She has now extended her AI in medical imaging research to include the analysis of COVID-19 on CT and chest radiographs, and is PI on the NIH NIBIB-funded Medical Imaging and Data Resource Center (MIDRC). She was a cofounder of Quantitative Insights, Inc., which started through the 2009-2010 New Venture Challenge at the University of Chicago. QI produced QuantX, which in 2017, became the first FDA-cleared, machine-learning-driven system to aid in cancer diagnosis (CADx). In 2019, QuantX was named one of TIME magazine's inventions of the year, and was bought by Qlarity Imaging.
Keywords
computer-aided diagnosis, machine learning, breast cancer, deep learning, radiomics, COVID-19
Education
  • Illinois Benedictine College, Lisle, IL, BS physics, math, health science 05/1978
  • University of Exeter, Exeter, England, MSc physics 9/1979
  • University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, PhD medical physics 3/1985
Biosciences Graduate Program Association
Awards & Honors
  • 1975 - 1977 President's Scholarship Award Illinois Benedictine College
  • 1977 - Rev. Shonka, O.S.B. Scholarship Award in Physics Illinois Benedictine College
  • 1978 - 1979 Rotary International Fellowship
  • 1978 - B.S. summa cum laude Illinois Benedictine College
  • 1978 - Procopian Award Illinois Benedictine College
  • 1985 - First Place Award, Young Investigators' Symposium AAPM
  • 1995 - Stauffer Award, Academic Radiology
  • 1995 - Sylvia Sorkin Greenfield Award AAPM
  • 2000 - Fellow AIMBE
  • 2001 - Fellow AAPM
  • 2005 - Senior Member IEEE
  • 2005 - Third Vice President (Honorary) RSNA
  • 2006 - Distinguished Alumni Award Benedictine University
  • 2009 - Excellence Award University of Chicago Paul Hodges Alumni Society
  • 2010 - Elected National Academy of Engineering National Academy of Engineering
  • 2013 - Named by the International Congress on Medical Physics (ICMP) as one of the 50 medical physicists wi
  • 2014 - Distinguished Science Alumni Award Benedictine University
  • 2014 - Fellow SPIE
  • 2015 - Distinguished Investigator Academy of Radiology Research
  • 2015 - Visionary Award Benedictine University
  • 2015 - William D. Coolidge Gold Medal American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM)
  • 2016 - Academic Career Achievement Award Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS)
  • 2016 - Fellow IEEE
  • 2017 - 2020 Hagler Institute Fellow Texas A & M University
  • 2018 - Crain's Chicago Notable Women in Education Crain's Chicago
  • 2018 - Fellow Society of Breast MRI (SBMR)
  • 2018 - iCON Innovator Award IBIO Institute
  • 2019 - Fellow IAMBE (International Academy of Medical & Biological Engineering)
  • 2019 - Top 100 Inventions of 2019, for QuantX TIME magazine
  • 2020 - Honored Educator Award RSNA
  • 2021 - Directors' Award SPIE
  • 2021 - Fellow Chinese Optical Society (COS)
Publications
  1. El Naqa I, Li H, Fuhrman J, Hu Q, Gorre N, Chen W, Giger ML. Lessons learned in transitioning to AI in the medical imaging of COVID-19. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2021 Jan; 8(Suppl 1):010902-10902. View in: PubMed

  2. Whitney HM, Li H, Ji Y, Liu P, Giger ML. Multi-Stage Harmonization for Robust AI across Breast MR Databases. Cancers (Basel). 2021 Sep 26; 13(19). View in: PubMed

  3. Hu Q, Drukker K, Giger ML. Role of standard and soft tissue chest radiography images in deep-learning-based early diagnosis of COVID-19. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2021 Jan; 8(Suppl 1):014503. View in: PubMed

  4. Li F, Armato SG, Engelmann R, Rhines T, Crosby J, Lan L, Giger ML, MacMahon H. Anatomic Point-Based Lung Region with Zone Identification for Radiologist Annotation and Machine Learning for Chest Radiographs. J Digit Imaging. 2021 08; 34(4):922-931. View in: PubMed

  5. Hu Q, Whitney HM, Li H, Ji Y, Liu P, Giger ML. Improved Classification of Benign and Malignant Breast Lesions Using Deep Feature Maximum Intensity Projection MRI in Breast Cancer Diagnosis Using Dynamic Contrast-enhanced MRI. Radiol Artif Intell. 2021 May; 3(3):e200159. View in: PubMed

  6. Whitney HM, Drukker K, Edwards A, Papaioannou J, Medved M, Karczmar G, Giger ML. Robustness of radiomic features of benign breast lesions and hormone receptor positive/HER2-negative cancers across DCE-MR magnet strengths. Magn Reson Imaging. 2021 10; 82:111-121. View in: PubMed

  7. Durkee MS, Abraham R, Clark MR, Giger ML. Artificial Intelligence and Cellular Segmentation in Tissue Microscopy Images. Am J Pathol. 2021 10; 191(10):1693-1701. View in: PubMed

  8. Whitney HM, Li H, Ji Y, Liu P, Giger ML. Comparison of Breast MRI Tumor Classification Using Human-Engineered Radiomics, Transfer Learning From Deep Convolutional Neural Networks, and Fusion Methods. Proc IEEE Inst Electr Electron Eng. 2020 Jan; 108(1):163-177. View in: PubMed

  9. Hinsdale TA, Malik BH, Cheng S, Benavides OR, Giger ML, Wright JM, Patel PB, Jo JA, Maitland KC. Enhanced detection of oral dysplasia by structured illumination fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 02; 11(1):4984. View in: PubMed

  10. Mota SM, Rogers RE, Haskell AW, McNeill EP, Kaunas R, Gregory CA, Giger ML, Maitland KC. Automated mesenchymal stem cell segmentation and machine learning-based phenotype classification using morphometric and textural analysis. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2021 Jan; 8(1):014503. View in: PubMed

  11. Durkee MS, Abraham R, Ai J, Veselits M, Clark MR, Giger ML. Quantifying the effects of biopsy fixation and staining panel design on automatic instance segmentation of immune cells in human lupus nephritis. J Biomed Opt. 2021 01; 26(2). View in: PubMed

  12. Fuhrman JD, Chen J, Dong Z, Lure FYM, Luo Z, Giger ML. Cascaded deep transfer learning on thoracic CT in COVID-19 patients treated with steroids. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2021 Jan; 8(Suppl 1):014501. View in: PubMed

  13. Hu Q, Whitney HM, Giger ML. Radiomics methodology for breast cancer diagnosis using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2020 Jul; 7(4):044502. View in: PubMed

  14. Kuo HC, Giger ML, Reiser I, Drukker K, Boone JM, Lindfors KK, Yang K, Edwards A, Sennett CA. Segmentation of breast masses on dedicated breast computed tomography and three-dimensional breast ultrasound images. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2014 Apr; 1(1):014501. View in: PubMed

  15. Su Y, Han Y, Liu J, Qiu Y, Tan Q, Zhou Z, Yu YZ, Chen J, Giger ML, Lure FYM, Luo Z. Tailoring steroids in the treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia assisted by CT scans: three case reports. J Xray Sci Technol. 2020; 28(5):885-892. View in: PubMed

  16. Hu Q, Whitney HM, Giger ML. A deep learning methodology for improved breast cancer diagnosis using multiparametric MRI. Sci Rep. 2020 06 29; 10(1):10536. View in: PubMed

  17. Whitney HM, Li H, Ji Y, Liu P, Giger ML. Harmonization of radiomic features of breast lesions across international DCE-MRI datasets. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2020 Jan; 7(1):012707. View in: PubMed

  18. Crosby J, Rhines T, Li F, MacMahon H, Giger M. Deep convolutional neural networks in the classification of dual-energy thoracic radiographic views for efficient workflow: analysis on over 6500 clinical radiographs. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2020 Jan; 7(1):016501. View in: PubMed

  19. El Naqa I, Haider MA, Giger ML, Ten Haken RK. Artificial Intelligence: reshaping the practice of radiological sciences in the 21st century. Br J Radiol. 2020 Feb 01; 93(1106):20190855. View in: PubMed

  20. Giger M. Integrating structured abstracts in the Journal of Medical Imaging. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2020 Jan; 7(1):010101. View in: PubMed

  21. Drukker K, Edwards A, Doyle C, Papaioannou J, Kulkarni K, Giger ML. Breast MRI radiomics for the pretreatment prediction of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in node-positive breast cancer patients. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2019 Jul; 6(3):034502. View in: PubMed

  22. Ji Y, Li H, Edwards AV, Papaioannou J, Ma W, Liu P, Giger ML. Independent validation of machine learning in diagnosing breast Cancer on magnetic resonance imaging within a single institution. Cancer Imaging. 2019 Sep 18; 19(1):64. View in: PubMed

  23. Sheth D, Giger ML. Artificial intelligence in the interpretation of breast cancer on MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2020 05; 51(5):1310-1324. View in: PubMed

  24. Yeh AC, Li H, Zhu Y, Zhang J, Khramtsova G, Drukker K, Edwards A, McGregor S, Yoshimatsu T, Zheng Y, Niu Q, Abe H, Mueller J, Conzen S, Ji Y, Giger ML, Olopade OI. Radiogenomics of breast cancer using dynamic contrast enhanced MRI and gene expression profiling. Cancer Imaging. 2019 Jul 15; 19(1):48. View in: PubMed

  25. Miller TA, Robinson KR, Li H, Seiwert TY, Haraf DJ, Lan L, Giger ML, Ginat DT. Prognostic value of pre-treatment CT texture analysis in combination with change in size of the primary tumor in response to induction chemotherapy for HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Quant Imaging Med Surg. 2019 Mar; 9(3):399-408. View in: PubMed

  26. Foy JJ, Robinson KR, Li H, Giger ML, Al-Hallaq H, Armato SG. Variation in algorithm implementation across radiomics software. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2018 Oct; 5(4):044505. View in: PubMed

  27. Armato SG, Huisman H, Drukker K, Hadjiiski L, Kirby JS, Petrick N, Redmond G, Giger ML, Cha K, Mamonov A, Kalpathy-Cramer J, Farahani K. PROSTATEx Challenges for computerized classification of prostate lesions from multiparametric magnetic resonance images. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2018 Oct; 5(4):044501. View in: PubMed

  28. Antropova N, Huynh B, Li H, Giger ML. Breast lesion classification based on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images sequences with long short-term memory networks. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2019 Jan; 6(1):011002. View in: PubMed

  29. Robinson K, Li H, Lan L, Schacht D, Giger M. Radiomics robustness assessment and classification evaluation: A two-stage method demonstrated on multivendor FFDM. Med Phys. 2019 May; 46(5):2145-2156. View in: PubMed

  30. Liarski VM, Sibley A, van Panhuys N, Ai J, Chang A, Kennedy D, Merolle M, Germain RN, Giger ML, Clark MR. Quantifying in situ adaptive immune cell cognate interactions in humans. Nat Immunol. 2019 04; 20(4):503-513. View in: PubMed

  31. Li H, Mendel KR, Lan L, Sheth D, Giger ML. Digital Mammography in Breast Cancer: Additive Value of Radiomics of Breast Parenchyma. Radiology. 2019 04; 291(1):15-20. View in: PubMed

  32. Bi WL, Hosny A, Schabath MB, Giger ML, Birkbak NJ, Mehrtash A, Allison T, Arnaout O, Abbosh C, Dunn IF, Mak RH, Tamimi RM, Tempany CM, Swanton C, Hoffmann U, Schwartz LH, Gillies RJ, Huang RY, Aerts HJWL. Artificial intelligence in cancer imaging: Clinical challenges and applications. CA Cancer J Clin. 2019 03; 69(2):127-157. View in: PubMed

  33. Drukker K, Giger ML, Joe BN, Kerlikowske K, Greenwood H, Drukteinis JS, Niell B, Fan B, Malkov S, Avila J, Kazemi L, Shepherd J. Combined Benefit of Quantitative Three-Compartment Breast Image Analysis and Mammography Radiomics in the Classification of Breast Masses in a Clinical Data Set. Radiology. 2019 03; 290(3):621-628. View in: PubMed

  34. Sahiner B, Pezeshk A, Hadjiiski LM, Wang X, Drukker K, Cha KH, Summers RM, Giger ML. Deep learning in medical imaging and radiation therapy. Med Phys. 2019 Jan; 46(1):e1-e36. View in: PubMed

  35. Net JM, Whitman GJ, Morris E, Brandt KR, Burnside ES, Giger ML, Ganott M, Sutton EJ, Zuley ML, Rao A. Relationships Between Human-Extracted MRI Tumor Phenotypes of Breast Cancer and Clinical Prognostic Indicators Including Receptor Status and Molecular Subtype. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2019 Sep - Oct; 48(5):467-472. View in: PubMed

  36. Mackie TR, Jackson EF, Giger M. Opportunities and challenges to utilization of quantitative imaging: Report of the AAPM practical big data workshop. Med Phys. 2018 Oct; 45(10):e820-e828. View in: PubMed

  37. Mendel K, Li H, Sheth D, Giger M. Transfer Learning From Convolutional Neural Networks for Computer-Aided Diagnosis: A Comparison of Digital Breast Tomosynthesis and Full-Field Digital Mammography. Acad Radiol. 2019 06; 26(6):735-743. View in: PubMed

  38. Whitney HM, Taylor NS, Drukker K, Edwards AV, Papaioannou J, Schacht D, Giger ML. Additive Benefit of Radiomics Over Size Alone in the Distinction Between Benign Lesions and Luminal A Cancers on a Large Clinical Breast MRI Dataset. Acad Radiol. 2019 02; 26(2):202-209. View in: PubMed

  39. Sutton EJ, Huang EP, Drukker K, Burnside ES, Li H, Net JM, Rao A, Whitman GJ, Zuley M, Ganott M, Bonaccio E, Giger ML, Morris EA. Breast MRI radiomics: comparison of computer- and human-extracted imaging phenotypes. Eur Radiol Exp. 2017; 1(1):22. View in: PubMed

  40. Drukker K, Li H, Antropova N, Edwards A, Papaioannou J, Giger ML. Most-enhancing tumor volume by MRI radiomics predicts recurrence-free survival "early on" in neoadjuvant treatment of breast cancer. Cancer Imaging. 2018 Apr 13; 18(1):12. View in: PubMed

  41. Antropova N, Abe H, Giger ML. Use of clinical MRI maximum intensity projections for improved breast lesion classification with deep convolutional neural networks. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2018 Jan; 5(1):014503. View in: PubMed

  42. Orton CG, Giger ML. A brief history of the AAPM: Celebrating 60 years of contributions to medical physics practice and science. Med Phys. 2018 Feb; 45(2):497-501. View in: PubMed

  43. Giger ML. Machine Learning in Medical Imaging. J Am Coll Radiol. 2018 03; 15(3 Pt B):512-520. View in: PubMed

  44. Haddad CW, Drukker K, Gullett R, Carroll TJ, Christoforidis GA, Giger ML. Fuzzy c-means segmentation of major vessels in angiographic images of stroke. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2018 Jan; 5(1):014501. View in: PubMed

  45. Kontos D, Summers RM, Giger M. Special Section Guest Editorial: Radiomics and Deep Learning. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2017 Oct; 4(4):041301. View in: PubMed

  46. Sevick-Muraca EM, Frank RA, Giger ML, Mulshine JL. Moonshot Acceleration Factor: Medical Imaging. Cancer Res. 2017 11 01; 77(21):5717-5720. View in: PubMed

  47. Mendel KR, Li H, Lan L, Cahill CM, Rael V, Abe H, Giger ML. Quantitative texture analysis: robustness of radiomics across two digital mammography manufacturers' systems. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2018 Jan; 5(1):011002. View in: PubMed

  48. Li H, Giger ML, Huynh BQ, Antropova NO. Deep learning in breast cancer risk assessment: evaluation of convolutional neural networks on a clinical dataset of full-field digital mammograms. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2017 Oct; 4(4):041304. View in: PubMed

  49. Giger M. Updates and Changes with JMI. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2017 Jul; 4(3):030101. View in: PubMed

  50. Antropova N, Huynh BQ, Giger ML. A deep feature fusion methodology for breast cancer diagnosis demonstrated on three imaging modality datasets. Med Phys. 2017 Oct; 44(10):5162-5171. View in: PubMed

  51. King M, Rodgers Z, Giger ML, Bardo DME, Patel AR. Computerized method for evaluating diagnostic image quality of calcified plaque images in cardiac CT: Validation on a physical dynamic cardiac phantom. Med Phys. 2010 Nov; 37(11):5777-5786. View in: PubMed

  52. Jamieson AR, Giger ML, Drukker K, Pesce LL. Enhancement of breast CADx with unlabeled dataa). Med Phys. 2010 Aug; 37(8):4155-4172. View in: PubMed

  53. King M, Giger ML, Suzuki K, Bardo DME, Greenberg B, Lan L, Pan X. Computerized assessment of motion-contaminated calcified plaques in cardiac multidetector CT. Med Phys. 2007 Dec; 34(12):4876-4889. View in: PubMed

  54. Sadinski M, Giger M, Drukker K, Yamaguchi K, Lan L, Li H. TU-E-217BCD-07: Pilot Study on Consistency in Size Metrics for a Multimodality PEM/MR Breast Imaging Approach. Med Phys. 2012 Jun; 39(6Part24):3915. View in: PubMed

  55. Ozturk N, Armato S, Giger ML, Serago C, Ross LF. SU-E-E-03: Ethics and Professionalism Education in Medical Physics: A Needs Assessment Study. Med Phys. 2012 Jun; 39(6Part3):3623-3624. View in: PubMed

  56. Jansen SA, Fan X, Karczmar GS, Abe H, Schmidt RA, Giger M, Newstead GM. DCEMRI of breast lesions: Is kinetic analysis equally effective for both mass and nonmass-like enhancement? Med Phys. 2008 Jul; 35(7Part1):3102-3109. View in: PubMed

  57. Drukker K, Pesce L, Giger M. Repeatability in computer-aided diagnosis: Application to breast cancer diagnosis on sonography. Med Phys. 2010 Jun; 37(6Part1):2659-2669. View in: PubMed

  58. Armato SG, Drukker K, Li F, Hadjiiski L, Tourassi GD, Engelmann RM, Giger ML, Redmond G, Farahani K, Kirby JS, Petrick NA. Letter to the Editor: Use of Publicly Available Image Resources. Acad Radiol. 2017 07; 24(7):916-917. View in: PubMed

  59. Medved M, Li H, Abe H, Sheth D, Newstead GM, Olopade OI, Giger ML, Karczmar GS. Fast bilateral breast coverage with high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MRI at 3T. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2017 11; 46(5):1341-1348. View in: PubMed

  60. Li H, Weiss WA, Medved M, Abe H, Newstead GM, Karczmar GS, Giger ML. Breast density estimation from high spectral and spatial resolution MRI. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2016 Oct; 3(4):044507. View in: PubMed

  61. Armato SG, Drukker K, Li F, Hadjiiski L, Tourassi GD, Engelmann RM, Giger ML, Redmond G, Farahani K, Kirby JS, Clarke LP. LUNGx Challenge for computerized lung nodule classification. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2016 Oct; 3(4):044506. View in: PubMed

  62. Li H, Zhu Y, Burnside ES, Huang E, Drukker K, Hoadley KA, Fan C, Conzen SD, Zuley M, Net JM, Sutton E, Whitman GJ, Morris E, Perou CM, Ji Y, Giger ML. Quantitative MRI radiomics in the prediction of molecular classifications of breast cancer subtypes in the TCGA/TCIA data set. NPJ Breast Cancer. 2016; 2. View in: PubMed

  63. Huynh BQ, Li H, Giger ML. Digital mammographic tumor classification using transfer learning from deep convolutional neural networks. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2016 Jul; 3(3):034501. View in: PubMed

  64. Li F, Armato SG, Giger ML, MacMahon H. Clinical significance of noncalcified lung nodules in patients with breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016 Sep; 159(2):265-71. View in: PubMed

  65. Ahmed O, Jilani D, Sheth S, Giger M, Funaki B. Response. Radiology. 2016 Feb; 278(2):633. View in: PubMed

  66. Ko K, Wang J, Perper S, Jiang Y, Yanez D, Kaverina N, Ai J, Liarski VM, Chang A, Peng Y, Lan L, Westmoreland S, Olson L, Giger ML, Chun Wang L, Clark MR. Bcl-2 as a Therapeutic Target in Human Tubulointerstitial Inflammation. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016 11; 68(11):2740-2751. View in: PubMed

  67. Li H, Zhu Y, Burnside ES, Drukker K, Hoadley KA, Fan C, Conzen SD, Whitman GJ, Sutton EJ, Net JM, Ganott M, Huang E, Morris EA, Perou CM, Ji Y, Giger ML. MR Imaging Radiomics Signatures for Predicting the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence as Given by Research Versions of MammaPrint, Oncotype DX, and PAM50 Gene Assays. Radiology. 2016 Nov; 281(2):382-391. View in: PubMed

  68. Giger ML, Inciardi MF, Edwards A, Papaioannou J, Drukker K, Jiang Y, Brem R, Brown JB. Automated Breast Ultrasound in Breast Cancer Screening of Women With Dense Breasts: Reader Study of Mammography-Negative and Mammography-Positive Cancers. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2016 Jun; 206(6):1341-50. View in: PubMed

  69. Napel S, Giger M. Special Section Guest Editorial:Radiomics and Imaging Genomics: Quantitative Imaging for Precision Medicine. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2015 Oct; 2(4):041001. View in: PubMed

  70. Giger ML, Tornai MP. The Spectrum of Medical Imaging in the 2015 International Year of Light. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2015 Jul; 2(3):030101. View in: PubMed

  71. Guo W, Li H, Zhu Y, Lan L, Yang S, Drukker K, Morris E, Burnside E, Whitman G, Giger ML, Ji Y. Prediction of clinical phenotypes in invasive breast carcinomas from the integration of radiomics and genomics data. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2015 10; 2(4):041007. View in: PubMed

  72. Zhu Y, Li H, Guo W, Drukker K, Lan L, Giger ML, Ji Y. Deciphering Genomic Underpinnings of Quantitative MRI-based Radiomic Phenotypes of Invasive Breast Carcinoma. Sci Rep. 2015 Dec 07; 5:17787. View in: PubMed

  73. Burnside ES, Drukker K, Li H, Bonaccio E, Zuley M, Ganott M, Net JM, Sutton EJ, Brandt KR, Whitman GJ, Conzen SD, Lan L, Ji Y, Zhu Y, Jaffe CC, Huang EP, Freymann JB, Kirby JS, Morris EA, Giger ML. Using computer-extracted image phenotypes from tumors on breast magnetic resonance imaging to predict breast cancer pathologic stage. Cancer. 2016 Mar 01; 122(5):748-57. View in: PubMed

  74. Weiss WA, Medved M, Karczmar GS, Giger ML. Preliminary assessment of dispersion versus absorption analysis of high spectral and spatial resolution magnetic resonance images in the diagnosis of breast cancer. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2015 Apr; 2(2):024502. View in: PubMed

  75. Armato SG, Hadjiiski L, Tourassi GD, Drukker K, Giger ML, Li F, Redmond G, Farahani K, Kirby JS, Clarke LP. LUNGx Challenge for computerized lung nodule classification: reflections and lessons learned. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2015 Apr; 2(2):020103. View in: PubMed

  76. Giger ML. Introduction to the LUNGx Challenge. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2015 Apr; 2(2):020102. View in: PubMed

  77. Kuo HC, Giger ML, Reiser I, Drukker K, Boone JM, Lindfors KK, Yang K, Edwards A. Impact of lesion segmentation metrics on computer-aided diagnosis/detection in breast computed tomography. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2014 Oct; 1(3):031012. View in: PubMed

  78. Li H, Giger ML, Lan L, Janardanan J, Sennett CA. Comparative analysis of image-based phenotypes of mammographic density and parenchymal patterns in distinguishing between BRCA1/2 cases, unilateral cancer cases, and controls. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2014 Oct; 1(3):031009. View in: PubMed

  79. Giger ML. Pioneers in Medical Imaging Series. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2014 Oct; 1(3):030101. View in: PubMed

  80. Giger ML. Exciting Progress in the Growth of JMI. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2014 Jul; 1(2):020101. View in: PubMed

  81. Giger ML. Welcome to the Journal of Medical Imaging. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2014 Apr; 1(1):010101. View in: PubMed

  82. Ahmed O, Jilani D, Sheth S, Giger M, Funaki B. Long-term results of microcoil embolization for colonic haemorrhage: how common is rebleeding? Br J Radiol. 2015 Jul; 88(1051):20150203. View in: PubMed

  83. Ahmed O, Jilani D, Sheth S, Giger M, Funaki B. Radiologically Guided Placement of Mushroom-retained Gastrostomy Catheters: Long-term Outcomes of Use in 300 Patients at a Single Center. Radiology. 2015 Aug; 276(2):588-96. View in: PubMed

  84. Schacht DV, Drukker K, Pak I, Abe H, Giger ML. Using quantitative image analysis to classify axillary lymph nodes on breast MRI: a new application for the Z 0011 Era. Eur J Radiol. 2015 Mar; 84(3):392-397. View in: PubMed

  85. Andrews M, Giger ML, Roman BB. Manganese-enhanced MRI detection of impaired calcium regulation in a mouse model of cardiac hypertrophy. NMR Biomed. 2015 Feb; 28(2):255-63. View in: PubMed

  86. Gierach GL, Li H, Loud JT, Greene MH, Chow CK, Lan L, Prindiville SA, Eng-Wong J, Soballe PW, Giambartolomei C, Mai PL, Galbo CE, Nichols K, Calzone KA, Olopade OI, Gail MH, Giger ML. Relationships between computer-extracted mammographic texture pattern features and BRCA1/2 mutation status: a cross-sectional study. Breast Cancer Res. 2014; 16(4):424. View in: PubMed

  87. Bos A, Ahmed O, Jilani D, Giger M, Funaki BS, Zangan SM. Dual-lumen chest port infection rates in patients with head and neck cancer. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2015 Jun; 38(3):651-6. View in: PubMed

  88. Obuchowski NA, Reeves AP, Huang EP, Wang XF, Buckler AJ, Kim HJ, Barnhart HX, Jackson EF, Giger ML, Pennello G, Toledano AY, Kalpathy-Cramer J, Apanasovich TV, Kinahan PE, Myers KJ, Goldgof DB, Barboriak DP, Gillies RJ, Schwartz LH, Sullivan DC. Quantitative imaging biomarkers: a review of statistical methods for computer algorithm comparisons. Stat Methods Med Res. 2015 Feb; 24(1):68-106. View in: PubMed

  89. Ahmed O, Jilani D, Funaki B, Ginsburg M, Sheth S, Giger M, Zangan S. Comparison of barbed versus conventional sutures for wound closure of radiologically implanted chest ports. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2014 Sep; 25(9):1433-8. View in: PubMed

  90. Liarski VM, Kaverina N, Chang A, Brandt D, Yanez D, Talasnik L, Carlesso G, Herbst R, Utset TO, Labno C, Peng Y, Jiang Y, Giger ML, Clark MR. Cell distance mapping identifies functional T follicular helper cells in inflamed human renal tissue. Sci Transl Med. 2014 Apr 02; 6(230):230ra46. View in: PubMed

  91. Li H, Giger ML, Sun C, Ponsukcharoen U, Huo D, Lan L, Olopade OI, Jamieson AR, Brown JB, Di Rienzo A. Pilot study demonstrating potential association between breast cancer image-based risk phenotypes and genomic biomarkers. Med Phys. 2014 Mar; 41(3):031917. View in: PubMed

  92. Drukker K, Duewer F, Giger ML, Malkov S, Flowers CI, Joe B, Kerlikowske K, Drukteinis JS, Li H, Shepherd JA. Mammographic quantitative image analysis and biologic image composition for breast lesion characterization and classification. Med Phys. 2014 Mar; 41(3):031915. View in: PubMed

  93. Peng Y, Jiang Y, Antic T, Giger ML, Eggener SE, Oto A. Validation of quantitative analysis of multiparametric prostate MR images for prostate cancer detection and aggressiveness assessment: a cross-imager study. Radiology. 2014 May; 271(2):461-71. View in: PubMed

  94. Drukker K, Sennett CA, Giger ML. Computerized detection of breast cancer on automated breast ultrasound imaging of women with dense breasts. Med Phys. 2014 Jan; 41(1):012901. View in: PubMed

  95. Weiss WA, Medved M, Karczmar GS, Giger ML. Residual analysis of the water resonance signal in breast lesions imaged with high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MRI: a pilot study. Med Phys. 2014 Jan; 41(1):012303. View in: PubMed

  96. Kuo HC, Giger ML, Reiser I, Boone JM, Lindfors KK, Yang K, Edwards A. Level set segmentation of breast masses in contrast-enhanced dedicated breast CT and evaluation of stopping criteria. J Digit Imaging. 2014 Apr; 27(2):237-47. View in: PubMed

  97. Bhooshan N, Giger M, Medved M, Li H, Wood A, Yuan Y, Lan L, Marquez A, Karczmar G, Newstead G. Potential of computer-aided diagnosis of high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MRI in the classification of breast lesions. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2014 Jan; 39(1):59-67. View in: PubMed

  98. Giger ML, Karssemeijer N, Schnabel JA. Breast image analysis for risk assessment, detection, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. Annu Rev Biomed Eng. 2013; 15:327-57. View in: PubMed

  99. Drukker K, Horsch KJ, Pesce LL, Giger ML. Interreader scoring variability in an observer study using dual-modality imaging for breast cancer detection in women with dense breasts. Acad Radiol. 2013 Jul; 20(7):847-53. View in: PubMed

  100. Ozturk N, Armato SG, Giger ML, Serago CF, Ross LF. Ethics and professionalism in medical physics: a survey of AAPM members. Med Phys. 2013 Apr; 40(4):047001. View in: PubMed

  101. Drukker K, Giger M, Meinel LA, Starkey A, Janardanan J, Abe H. Quantitative ultrasound image analysis of axillary lymph node status in breast cancer patients. Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg. 2013 Nov; 8(6):895-903. View in: PubMed

  102. Peng Y, Jiang Y, Yang C, Brown JB, Antic T, Sethi I, Schmid-Tannwald C, Giger ML, Eggener SE, Oto A. Quantitative analysis of multiparametric prostate MR images: differentiation between prostate cancer and normal tissue and correlation with Gleason score--a computer-aided diagnosis development study. Radiology. 2013 Jun; 267(3):787-96. View in: PubMed

  103. Horsch K, Pesce LL, Giger ML, Metz CE, Jiang Y. A scaling transformation for classifier output based on likelihood ratio: applications to a CAD workstation for diagnosis of breast cancer. Med Phys. 2012 May; 39(5):2787-804. View in: PubMed

  104. Armato SG, Gruszauskas NP, Macmahon H, Torno MD, Li F, Engelmann RM, Starkey A, Pudela CL, Marino JS, Santiago F, Chang PJ, Giger ML. Research imaging in an academic medical center. Acad Radiol. 2012 Jun; 19(6):762-71. View in: PubMed

  105. Reiser I, Nishikawa RM, Giger ML, Boone JM, Lindfors KK, Yang K. Automated detection of mass lesions in dedicated breast CT: a preliminary study. Med Phys. 2012 Feb; 39(2):866-73. View in: PubMed

  106. Gallas BD, Chan HP, D'Orsi CJ, Dodd LE, Giger ML, Gur D, Krupinski EA, Metz CE, Myers KJ, Obuchowski NA, Sahiner B, Toledano AY, Zuley ML. Evaluating imaging and computer-aided detection and diagnosis devices at the FDA. Acad Radiol. 2012 Apr; 19(4):463-77. View in: PubMed

  107. Li H, Giger ML, Lan L, Bancroft Brown J, MacMahon A, Mussman M, Olopade OI, Sennett C. Computerized analysis of mammographic parenchymal patterns on a large clinical dataset of full-field digital mammograms: robustness study with two high-risk datasets. J Digit Imaging. 2012 Oct; 25(5):591-8. View in: PubMed

  108. Nishikawa RM, Giger ML, Jiang Y, Metz CE. Re: effectiveness of computer-aided detection in community mammography practice. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012 Jan 04; 104(1):77; author reply 78-9. View in: PubMed

  109. Bhooshan N, Giger M, Edwards D, Yuan Y, Jansen S, Li H, Lan L, Sattar H, Newstead G. Computerized three-class classification of MRI-based prognostic markers for breast cancer. Phys Med Biol. 2011 Sep 21; 56(18):5995-6008. View in: PubMed

  110. Bhooshan N, Giger M, Lan L, Li H, Marquez A, Shimauchi A, Newstead GM. Combined use of T2-weighted MRI and T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in the automated analysis of breast lesions. Magn Reson Med. 2011 Aug; 66(2):555-64. View in: PubMed

  111. Jansen SA, Lin VC, Giger ML, Li H, Karczmar GS, Newstead GM. Normal parenchymal enhancement patterns in women undergoing MR screening of the breast. Eur Radiol. 2011 Jul; 21(7):1374-82. View in: PubMed

  112. Buckler AJ, Bresolin L, Dunnick NR, Sullivan DC, Aerts HJ, Bendriem B, Bendtsen C, Boellaard R, Boone JM, Cole PE, Conklin JJ, Dorfman GS, Douglas PS, Eidsaunet W, Elsinger C, Frank RA, Gatsonis C, Giger ML, Gupta SN, Gustafson D, Hoekstra OS, Jackson EF, Karam L, Kelloff GJ, Kinahan PE, McLennan G, Miller CG, Mozley PD, Muller KE, Patt R, Raunig D, Rosen M, Rupani H, Schwartz LH, Siegel BA, Sorensen AG, Wahl RL, Waterton JC, Wolf W, Zahlmann G, Zimmerman B. Quantitative imaging test approval and biomarker qualification: interrelated but distinct activities. Radiology. 2011 Jun; 259(3):875-84. View in: PubMed

  113. Shimauchi A, Giger ML, Bhooshan N, Lan L, Pesce LL, Lee JK, Abe H, Newstead GM. Evaluation of clinical breast MR imaging performed with prototype computer-aided diagnosis breast MR imaging workstation: reader study. Radiology. 2011 Mar; 258(3):696-704. View in: PubMed

  114. King M, Rodgers Z, Giger ML, Bardo DM, Patel AR. Computerized method for evaluating diagnostic image quality of calcified plaque images in cardiac CT: validation on a physical dynamic cardiac phantom. Med Phys. 2010 Nov; 37(11):5777-86. View in: PubMed

  115. Jamieson AR, Giger ML, Drukker K, Pesce LL. Enhancement of breast CADx with unlabeled data. Med Phys. 2010 Aug; 37(8):4155-72. View in: PubMed

  116. Yuan Y, Giger ML, Li H, Bhooshan N, Sennett CA. Multimodality computer-aided breast cancer diagnosis with FFDM and DCE-MRI. Acad Radiol. 2010 Sep; 17(9):1158-67. View in: PubMed

  117. Drukker K, Pesce L, Giger M. Repeatability in computer-aided diagnosis: application to breast cancer diagnosis on sonography. Med Phys. 2010 Jun; 37(6):2659-69. View in: PubMed

  118. Chen W, Giger ML, Newstead GM, Bick U, Jansen SA, Li H, Lan L. Computerized assessment of breast lesion malignancy using DCE-MRI robustness study on two independent clinical datasets from two manufacturers. Acad Radiol. 2010 Jul; 17(7):822-9. View in: PubMed

  119. Jamieson AR, Giger ML, Drukker K, Li H, Yuan Y, Bhooshan N. Exploring nonlinear feature space dimension reduction and data representation in breast Cadx with Laplacian eigenmaps and t-SNE. Med Phys. 2010 Jan; 37(1):339-51. View in: PubMed

  120. Bhooshan N, Giger ML, Jansen SA, Li H, Lan L, Newstead GM. Cancerous breast lesions on dynamic contrast-enhanced MR images: computerized characterization for image-based prognostic markers. Radiology. 2010 Mar; 254(3):680-90. View in: PubMed

  121. Giger ML. Update on the potential of computer-aided diagnosis for breast cancer. Future Oncol. 2010 Jan; 6(1):1-4. View in: PubMed

  122. Gruszauskas NP, Drukker K, Giger ML, Chang RF, Sennett CA, Moon WK, Pesce LL. Breast US computer-aided diagnosis system: robustness across urban populations in South Korea and the United States. Radiology. 2009 Dec; 253(3):661-71. View in: PubMed

  123. Chen W, Metz CE, Giger ML, Drukker K. A novel hybrid linear/nonlinear classifier for two-class classification: theory, algorithm, and applications. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2010 Feb; 29(2):428-41. View in: PubMed

  124. Vokes T, Lauderdale D, Ma SL, Chinander M, Childs K, Giger M. Radiographic texture analysis of densitometric calcaneal images: relationship to clinical characteristics and to bone fragility. J Bone Miner Res. 2010 Jan; 25(1):56-63. View in: PubMed

  125. Giger ML, Chan HP, Boone J. Anniversary paper: History and status of CAD and quantitative image analysis: the role of Medical Physics and AAPM. Med Phys. 2008 Dec; 35(12):5799-820. View in: PubMed

  126. Yuan Y, Giger ML, Li H, Sennett C. Correlative feature analysis on FFDM. Med Phys. 2008 Dec; 35(12):5490-500. View in: PubMed

  127. Drukker K, Sennett CA, Giger ML. Automated method for improving system performance of computer-aided diagnosis in breast ultrasound. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2009 Jan; 28(1):122-8. View in: PubMed

  128. Horsch K, Giger ML, Metz CE. Prevalence scaling: applications to an intelligent workstation for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Acad Radiol. 2008 Nov; 15(11):1446-57. View in: PubMed

  129. Li H, Giger ML, Yuan Y, Chen W, Horsch K, Lan L, Jamieson AR, Sennett CA, Jansen SA. Evaluation of computer-aided diagnosis on a large clinical full-field digital mammographic dataset. Acad Radiol. 2008 Nov; 15(11):1437-45. View in: PubMed

  130. Gruszauskas NP, Drukker K, Giger ML, Sennett CA, Pesce LL. Performance of breast ultrasound computer-aided diagnosis: dependence on image selection. Acad Radiol. 2008 Oct; 15(10):1234-45. View in: PubMed

  131. Jansen SA, Fan X, Karczmar GS, Abe H, Schmidt RA, Giger M, Newstead GM. DCEMRI of breast lesions: is kinetic analysis equally effective for both mass and nonmass-like enhancement? Med Phys. 2008 Jul; 35(7):3102-9. View in: PubMed

  132. Drukker K, Gruszauskas NP, Sennett CA, Giger ML. Breast US computer-aided diagnosis workstation: performance with a large clinical diagnostic population. Radiology. 2008 Aug; 248(2):392-7. View in: PubMed

  133. Wilkie JR, Giger ML, Chinander MR, Engh CA, Hopper RH, Martell JM. Temporal radiographic texture analysis in the detection of periprosthetic osteolysis. Med Phys. 2008 Jan; 35(1):377-87. View in: PubMed

  134. Wilkie JR, Giger ML, Engh CA, Hopper RH, Martell JM. Radiographic texture analysis in the characterization of trabecular patterns in periprosthetic osteolysis. Acad Radiol. 2008 Feb; 15(2):176-85. View in: PubMed

  135. Horsch K, Giger ML, Metz CE. Potential effect of different radiologist reporting methods on studies showing benefit of CAD. Acad Radiol. 2008 Feb; 15(2):139-52. View in: PubMed

  136. King M, Giger ML, Suzuki K, Bardo DM, Greenberg B, Lan L, Pan X. Computerized assessment of motion-contaminated calcified plaques in cardiac multidetector CT. Med Phys. 2007 Dec; 34(12):4876-89. View in: PubMed

  137. King M, Giger ML, Suzuki K, Pan X. Feature-based characterization of motion-contaminated calcified plaques in cardiac multidetector CT. Med Phys. 2007 Dec; 34(12):4860-75. View in: PubMed

  138. Li H, Giger ML, Olopade OI, Chinander MR. Power spectral analysis of mammographic parenchymal patterns for breast cancer risk assessment. J Digit Imaging. 2008 Jun; 21(2):145-52. View in: PubMed

  139. Vokes TJ, Pham A, Wilkie J, Kocherginsky M, Ma SL, Chinander M, Karrison T, Bris O, Giger ML. Reproducibility and sources of variability in radiographic texture analysis of densitometric calcaneal images. J Clin Densitom. 2008 Apr-Jun; 11(2):211-20. View in: PubMed

  140. Yuan Y, Giger ML, Li H, Suzuki K, Sennett C. A dual-stage method for lesion segmentation on digital mammograms. Med Phys. 2007 Nov; 34(11):4180-93. View in: PubMed

  141. Chen W, Giger ML, Li H, Bick U, Newstead GM. Volumetric texture analysis of breast lesions on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images. Magn Reson Med. 2007 Sep; 58(3):562-71. View in: PubMed

  142. Li H, Giger ML, Olopade OI, Lan L. Fractal analysis of mammographic parenchymal patterns in breast cancer risk assessment. Acad Radiol. 2007 May; 14(5):513-21. View in: PubMed

  143. Chen W, Giger ML, Bick U, Newstead GM. Automatic identification and classification of characteristic kinetic curves of breast lesions on DCE-MRI. Med Phys. 2006 Aug; 33(8):2878-87. View in: PubMed

  144. Horsch K, Giger ML, Vyborny CJ, Lan L, Mendelson EB, Hendrick RE. Classification of breast lesions with multimodality computer-aided diagnosis: observer study results on an independent clinical data set. Radiology. 2006 Aug; 240(2):357-68. View in: PubMed

  145. Vokes TJ, Giger ML, Chinander MR, Karrison TG, Favus MJ, Dixon LB. Radiographic texture analysis of densitometer-generated calcaneus images differentiates postmenopausal women with and without fractures. Osteoporos Int. 2006 Oct; 17(10):1472-82. View in: PubMed

  146. King M, Pan X, Yu L, Giger M. Region-of-interest reconstruction of motion-contaminated data using a weighted backprojection filtration algorithm. Med Phys. 2006 May; 33(5):1222-38. View in: PubMed

  147. Reiser I, Nishikawa RM, Giger ML, Wu T, Rafferty EA, Moore R, Kopans DB. Computerized mass detection for digital breast tomosynthesis directly from the projection images. Med Phys. 2006 Feb; 33(2):482-91. View in: PubMed

  148. Chen W, Giger ML, Bick U. A fuzzy c-means (FCM)-based approach for computerized segmentation of breast lesions in dynamic contrast-enhanced MR images. Acad Radiol. 2006 Jan; 13(1):63-72. View in: PubMed

  149. Drukker K, Giger ML, Metz CE. Robustness of computerized lesion detection and classification scheme across different breast US platforms. Radiology. 2005 Dec; 237(3):834-40. View in: PubMed

  150. Drukker K, Horsch K, Giger ML. Multimodality computerized diagnosis of breast lesions using mammography and sonography. Acad Radiol. 2005 Aug; 12(8):970-9. View in: PubMed

  151. Partain CL, Chan HP, Gelovani JG, Giger ML, Izatt JA, Jolesz FA, Kandarpa K, Li KC, McNitt-Gray M, Napel S, Summers RM, Gazelle GS. Biomedical Imaging Research Opportunities Workshop II: report and recommendations. Radiology. 2005 Aug; 236(2):389-403. View in: PubMed

  152. Li H, Giger ML, Olopade OI, Margolis A, Lan L, Chinander MR. Computerized texture analysis of mammographic parenchymal patterns of digitized mammograms. Acad Radiol. 2005 Jul; 12(7):863-73. View in: PubMed

  153. Giger ML. Update on the potential role of CAD in radiologic interpretations: are we making progress?. Acad Radiol. 2005 Jun; 12(6):669-70. View in: PubMed

  154. Giger ML. Computerized analysis of images in the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2004 Oct; 25(5):411-8. View in: PubMed

  155. Reiser I, Nishikawa RM, Giger ML, Wu T, Rafferty E, Moore RH, Kopans DB. Computerized detection of mass lesions in digital breast tomosynthesis images using two- and three dimensional radial gradient index segmentation. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2004 Oct; 3(5):437-41. View in: PubMed

  156. Chen W, Giger ML, Lan L, Bick U. Computerized interpretation of breast MRI: investigation of enhancement-variance dynamics. Med Phys. 2004 May; 31(5):1076-82. View in: PubMed

  157. Drukker K, Giger ML, Vyborny CJ, Mendelson EB. Computerized detection and classification of cancer on breast ultrasound. Acad Radiol. 2004 May; 11(5):526-35. View in: PubMed

  158. Wilkie JR, Giger ML, Chinander MR, Vokes TJ, Li H, Dixon L, Jaros V. Comparison of radiographic texture analysis from computed radiography and bone densitometry systems. Med Phys. 2004 Apr; 31(4):882-91. View in: PubMed

  159. Wilkie JR, Giger ML, Chinander MR, Vokes TJ, Nishikawa RM, Carlin MD. Investigation of physical image quality indices of a bone densitometry system. Med Phys. 2004 Apr; 31(4):873-81. View in: PubMed

  160. Li H, Giger ML, Huo Z, Olopade OI, Lan L, Weber BL, Bonta I. Computerized analysis of mammographic parenchymal patterns for assessing breast cancer risk: effect of ROI size and location. Med Phys. 2004 Mar; 31(3):549-55. View in: PubMed

  161. Horsch K, Giger ML, Vyborny CJ, Venta LA. Performance of computer-aided diagnosis in the interpretation of lesions on breast sonography. Acad Radiol. 2004 Mar; 11(3):272-80. View in: PubMed

  162. Edwards DC, Lan L, Metz CE, Giger ML, Nishikawa RM. Estimating three-class ideal observer decision variables for computerized detection and classification of mammographic mass lesions. Med Phys. 2004 Jan; 31(1):81-90. View in: PubMed

  163. Carson PL, Giger M. Biomedical Imaging Research Opportunities Workshop: report and recommendations overview of the workshop. Acad Radiol. 2003 Aug; 10(8):882-6. View in: PubMed

  164. Carson PL, Giger M, Welch MJ, Halpern H, Kurdziel K, Vannier M, Evelhoch JL, Gazelle GS, Seltzer SE, Judy P, Hendee WR, Bourland JD. Biomedical Imaging Research Opportunities Workshop: report and recommendations. Radiology. 2003 Nov; 229(2):328-39. View in: PubMed

  165. Drukker K, Giger ML, Mendelson EB. Computerized analysis of shadowing on breast ultrasound for improved lesion detection. Med Phys. 2003 Jul; 30(7):1833-42. View in: PubMed

  166. Armato SG, Li F, Giger ML, MacMahon H, Sone S, Doi K. Lung cancer: performance of automated lung nodule detection applied to cancers missed in a CT screening program. Radiology. 2002 Dec; 225(3):685-92. View in: PubMed

  167. Huo Z, Giger ML, Olopade OI, Wolverton DE, Weber BL, Metz CE, Zhong W, Cummings SA. Computerized analysis of digitized mammograms of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation carriers. Radiology. 2002 Nov; 225(2):519-26. View in: PubMed

  168. Drukker K, Giger ML, Horsch K, Kupinski MA, Vyborny CJ, Mendelson EB. Computerized lesion detection on breast ultrasound. Med Phys. 2002 Jul; 29(7):1438-46. View in: PubMed

  169. Huo Z, Giger ML, Vyborny CJ, Metz CE. Breast cancer: effectiveness of computer-aided diagnosis observer study with independent database of mammograms. Radiology. 2002 Aug; 224(2):560-8. View in: PubMed

  170. Giger ML. Computer-aided diagnosis in radiology. Acad Radiol. 2002 Jan; 9(1):1-3. View in: PubMed

  171. Horsch K, Giger ML, Venta LA, Vyborny CJ. Computerized diagnosis of breast lesions on ultrasound. Med Phys. 2002 Feb; 29(2):157-64. View in: PubMed

  172. Huo Z, Giger ML, Vyborny CJ. Computerized analysis of multiple-mammographic views: potential usefulness of special view mammograms in computer-aided diagnosis. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2001 Dec; 20(12):1285-92. View in: PubMed

  173. Giger ML, Karssemeijer N, Armato SG. Computer-aided diagnosis in medical imaging. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2001 Dec; 20(12):1205-8. View in: PubMed

  174. Kupinski MA, Edwards DC, Giger ML, Metz CE. Ideal observer approximation using Bayesian classification neural networks. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2001 Sep; 20(9):886-99. View in: PubMed

  175. Horsch K, Giger ML, Venta LA, Vyborny CJ. Automatic segmentation of breast lesions on ultrasound. Med Phys. 2001 Aug; 28(8):1652-9. View in: PubMed

  176. Armato SG, Giger ML, MacMahon H. Automated detection of lung nodules in CT scans: preliminary results. Med Phys. 2001 Aug; 28(8):1552-61. View in: PubMed

  177. Huo Z, Giger ML, Vyborny CJ, Wolverton DE, Metz CE. Computerized classification of benign and malignant masses on digitized mammograms: a study of robustness. Acad Radiol. 2000 Dec; 7(12):1077-84. View in: PubMed

  178. Vyborny CJ, Giger ML, Nishikawa RM. Computer-aided detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. Radiol Clin North Am. 2000 Jul; 38(4):725-40. View in: PubMed

  179. Armato SG, Giger ML, Chen CT, Vyborny CJ, Ryan J, MacMahon H. Automated registration of frontal and lateral radionuclide lung scans with digital chest radiographs. Acad Radiol. 2000 Jul; 7(7):530-9. View in: PubMed

  180. Giger ML, Al-Hallaq H, Huo Z, Moran C, Wolverton DE, Chan CW, Zhong W. Computerized analysis of lesions in US images of the breast. Acad Radiol. 1999 Nov; 6(11):665-74. View in: PubMed

  181. Chinander MR, Giger ML, Martell JM, Favus MJ. Computerized analysis of radiographic bone patterns: effect of imaging conditions on performance. Med Phys. 2000 Jan; 27(1):75-85. View in: PubMed

  182. Huo Z, Giger ML, Wolverton DE, Zhong W, Cumming S, Olopade OI. Computerized analysis of mammographic parenchymal patterns for breast cancer risk assessment: feature selection. Med Phys. 2000 Jan; 27(1):4-12. View in: PubMed

  183. Jiang C, Giger ML, Kwak SM, Chinander MR, Martell JM, Favus MJ. Normalized BMD as a predictor of bone strength. Acad Radiol. 2000 Jan; 7(1):33-9. View in: PubMed

  184. Chinander MR, Giger ML, Martell JM, Jiang C, Favus MJ. Computerized radiographic texture measures for characterizing bone strength: a simulated clinical setup using femoral neck specimens. Med Phys. 1999 Nov; 26(11):2295-300. View in: PubMed

  185. Kupinski MA, Giger ML. Feature selection with limited datasets. Med Phys. 1999 Oct; 26(10):2176-82. View in: PubMed

  186. Huo Z, Giger ML, Metz CE. Effect of dominant features on neural network performance in the classification of mammographic lesions. Phys Med Biol. 1999 Oct; 44(10):2579-95. View in: PubMed

  187. Armato SG, Giger ML, Moran CJ, Blackburn JT, Doi K, MacMahon H. Computerized detection of pulmonary nodules on CT scans. Radiographics. 1999 Sep-Oct; 19(5):1303-11. View in: PubMed

  188. Jiang C, Giger ML, Chinander MR, Martell JM, Kwak S, Favus MJ. Characterization of bone quality using computer-extracted radiographic features. Med Phys. 1999 Jun; 26(6):872-9. View in: PubMed

  189. Giger ML, Wolverton DE. Computer-aided methods help cancer diagnoses. Diagn Imaging (San Franc). 1996 Nov; Suppl Digital X:D17-20. View in: PubMed

  190. Giger ML, Vyborny CJ. Computers aid diagnosis of breast abnormalities. Diagn Imaging (San Franc). 1993 Jun; 15(6):98-102, 113. View in: PubMed

  191. Armato SG, Giger ML, MacMahon H. Computerized analysis of abnormal asymmetry in digital chest radiographs: evaluation of potential utility. J Digit Imaging. 1999 Feb; 12(1):34-42. View in: PubMed

  192. Jiang Y, Nishikawa RM, Schmidt RA, Metz CE, Giger ML, Doi K. Improving breast cancer diagnosis with computer-aided diagnosis. Acad Radiol. 1999 Jan; 6(1):22-33. View in: PubMed

  193. Kupinski MA, Giger ML. Automated seeded lesion segmentation on digital mammograms. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 1998 Aug; 17(4):510-7. View in: PubMed

  194. Gilhuijs KG, Giger ML, Bick U. Computerized analysis of breast lesions in three dimensions using dynamic magnetic-resonance imaging. Med Phys. 1998 Sep; 25(9):1647-54. View in: PubMed

  195. Armato SG, Giger ML, Ashizawa K, MacMahon H. Automated lung segmentation in digital lateral chest radiographs. Med Phys. 1998 Aug; 25(8):1507-20. View in: PubMed

  196. Giger M, Brignoli R. [Prevalence of upper abdominal complaints and their effect on the quality of life and utilization of medical resources. Swiss Primary Care Group]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1998 May 30; 128(22):874-9. View in: PubMed

  197. Armato SG, Giger ML, MacMahon H. Computerized delineation and analysis of costophrenic angles in digital chest radiographs. Acad Radiol. 1998 May; 5(5):329-35. View in: PubMed

  198. Armato SG, Giger ML, MacMahon H. Automated lung segmentation in digitized posteroanterior chest radiographs. Acad Radiol. 1998 Apr; 5(4):245-55. View in: PubMed

  199. Huo Z, Giger ML, Vyborny CJ, Wolverton DE, Schmidt RA, Doi K. Automated computerized classification of malignant and benign masses on digitized mammograms. Acad Radiol. 1998 Mar; 5(3):155-68. View in: PubMed

  200. Bick U, Giger ML, Schmidt RA, Nishikawa RM, Wolverton DE, Doi K. Automated segmentation of digitized mammograms. Acad Radiol. 1995 Jan; 2(1):1-9. View in: PubMed

  201. Xu XW, Doi K, Kobayashi T, MacMahon H, Giger ML. Development of an improved CAD scheme for automated detection of lung nodules in digital chest images. Med Phys. 1997 Sep; 24(9):1395-403. View in: PubMed

  202. Armato SG, Giger ML, MacMahon H, Chen CT, Vyborny CJ. Automated registration of ventilation-perfusion images with digital chest radiographs. Acad Radiol. 1997 Mar; 4(3):183-92. View in: PubMed

  203. Bick U, Giger ML, Schmidt RA, Nishikawa RM, Doi K. Density correction of peripheral breast tissue on digital mammograms. Radiographics. 1996 Nov; 16(6):1403-11. View in: PubMed

  204. Zhang W, Doi K, Giger ML, Nishikawa RM, Schmidt RA. An improved shift-invariant artificial neural network for computerized detection of clustered microcalcifications in digital mammograms. Med Phys. 1996 Apr; 23(4):595-601. View in: PubMed

  205. Yoshida H, Doi K, Nishikawa RM, Giger ML, Schmidt RA. An improved computer-assisted diagnostic scheme using wavelet transform for detecting clustered microcalcifications in digital mammograms. Acad Radiol. 1996 Aug; 3(8):621-7. View in: PubMed

  206. Giger ML, Pelizzari CA. Advances in tumor imaging. Sci Am. 1996 Sep; 275(3):110-2. View in: PubMed

  207. Giger M, MacMahon H. Image processing and computer-aided diagnosis. Radiol Clin North Am. 1996 May; 34(3):565-96. View in: PubMed

  208. Jiang Y, Nishikawa RM, Wolverton DE, Metz CE, Giger ML, Schmidt RA, Vyborny CJ, Doi K. Malignant and benign clustered microcalcifications: automated feature analysis and classification. Radiology. 1996 Mar; 198(3):671-8. View in: PubMed

  209. Huo Z, Giger ML, Vyborny CJ, Bick U, Lu P, Wolverton DE, Schmidt RA. Analysis of spiculation in the computerized classification of mammographic masses. Med Phys. 1995 Oct; 22(10):1569-79. View in: PubMed

  210. MacMahon H, Giger M. Portable chest radiography techniques and teleradiology. Radiol Clin North Am. 1996 Jan; 34(1):1-20. View in: PubMed

  211. Bae KT, Giger ML, Chen CT, Kahn CE. Automatic segmentation of liver structure in CT images. Med Phys. 1993 Jan-Feb; 20(1):71-8. View in: PubMed

  212. Yoshimura H, Xu XW, Doi K, MacMahon H, Hoffmann KR, Giger ML, Montner SM. Development of a high quality film duplication system using a laser digitizer: comparison with computed radiography. Med Phys. 1993 Jan-Feb; 20(1):51-8. View in: PubMed

  213. Wu Y, Giger ML, Doi K, Vyborny CJ, Schmidt RA, Metz CE. Artificial neural networks in mammography: application to decision making in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Radiology. 1993 Apr; 187(1):81-7. View in: PubMed

  214. Caligiuri P, Giger ML, Favus MJ, Jia H, Doi K, Dixon LB. Computerized radiographic analysis of osteoporosis: preliminary evaluation. Radiology. 1993 Feb; 186(2):471-4. View in: PubMed

  215. Doi K, Giger ML, Nishikawa RM, Hoffmann KR, MacMahon H, Schmidt RA, Chua KG. Digital radiography. A useful clinical tool for computer-aided diagnosis by quantitative analysis of radiographic images. Acta Radiol. 1993 Sep; 34(5):426-39. View in: PubMed

  216. Wu Y, Doi K, Metz CE, Asada N, Giger ML. Simulation studies of data classification by artificial neural networks: potential applications in medical imaging and decision making. J Digit Imaging. 1993 May; 6(2):117-25. View in: PubMed

  217. Giger M. [Are classical medicine and alternative medicine compatible?]. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. 1993 Jun 22; 82(25-26):731-4. View in: PubMed

  218. Yin FF, Giger ML, Vyborny CJ, Doi K, Schmidt RA. Comparison of bilateral-subtraction and single-image processing techniques in the computerized detection of mammographic masses. Invest Radiol. 1993 Jun; 28(6):473-81. View in: PubMed

  219. Giger ML, Doi K, MacMahon H, Nishikawa RM, Hoffmann KR, Vyborny CJ, Schmidt RA, Jia H, Abe K, Chen X, et al. An "intelligent" workstation for computer-aided diagnosis. Radiographics. 1993 May; 13(3):647-56. View in: PubMed

  220. MacMahon H, Xu XW, Hoffmann KR, Giger ML, Yoshimura H, Doi K, Carlin M, Kano A, Yao L, Abe K, et al. Clinical experience with an advanced laser digitizer for cost-effective digital radiography. Radiographics. 1993 May; 13(3):635-45; discussion 645-6. View in: PubMed

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  223. Kano A, Doi K, MacMahon H, Hassell DD, Giger ML. Digital image subtraction of temporally sequential chest images for detection of interval change. Med Phys. 1994 Mar; 21(3):453-61. View in: PubMed

  224. Yin FF, Giger ML, Doi K, Vyborny CJ, Schmidt RA. Computerized detection of masses in digital mammograms: automated alignment of breast images and its effect on bilateral-subtraction technique. Med Phys. 1994 Mar; 21(3):445-52. View in: PubMed

  225. Nishikawa RM, Giger ML, Doi K, Metz CE, Yin FF, Vyborny CJ, Schmidt RA. Effect of case selection on the performance of computer-aided detection schemes. Med Phys. 1994 Feb; 21(2):265-9. View in: PubMed

  226. Yin FF, Giger ML, Doi K, Vyborny CJ, Schmidt RA. Computerized detection of masses in digital mammograms: investigation of feature-analysis techniques. J Digit Imaging. 1994 Feb; 7(1):18-26. View in: PubMed

  227. Giger ML, Vyborny CJ, Schmidt RA. Computerized characterization of mammographic masses: analysis of spiculation. Cancer Lett. 1994 Mar 15; 77(2-3):201-11. View in: PubMed

  228. Vyborny CJ, Giger ML. Computer vision and artificial intelligence in mammography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1994 Mar; 162(3):699-708. View in: PubMed

  229. Zhang W, Doi K, Giger ML, Wu Y, Nishikawa RM, Schmidt RA. Computerized detection of clustered microcalcifications in digital mammograms using a shift-invariant artificial neural network. Med Phys. 1994 Apr; 21(4):517-24. View in: PubMed

  230. Caligiuri P, Giger ML, Favus M. Multifractal radiographic analysis of osteoporosis. Med Phys. 1994 Apr; 21(4):503-8. View in: PubMed

  231. Giger ML, Bae KT, MacMahon H. Computerized detection of pulmonary nodules in computed tomography images. Invest Radiol. 1994 Apr; 29(4):459-65. View in: PubMed

  232. Hoffmann KR, Doi K, MacMahon H, Giger ML, Nishikawa RM, Xu XW, Yao L, Kano A, Carlin M. Development of a digital duplication system for portable chest radiographs. J Digit Imaging. 1994 Aug; 7(3):146-53. View in: PubMed

  233. Armato SG, Giger ML, MacMahon H. Computerized detection of abnormal asymmetry in digital chest radiographs. Med Phys. 1994 Nov; 21(11):1761-8. View in: PubMed

  234. Wu YC, Doi K, Giger ML, Metz CE, Zhang W. Reduction of false positives in computerized detection of lung nodules in chest radiographs using artificial neural networks, discriminant analysis, and a rule-based scheme. J Digit Imaging. 1994 Nov; 7(4):196-207. View in: PubMed

  235. Nishikawa RM, Doi K, Giger ML, Schmidt RA, Vyborny CJ, Monnier-Cholley L, Papaioannou J, Lu P. Computerized detection of clustered microcalcifications: evaluation of performance on mammograms from multiple centers. Radiographics. 1995 Mar; 15(2):443-52. View in: PubMed

  236. Doi K, Giger ML, Nishikawa RM, Hoffmann KR, MacMahon H, Schmidt RA. Potential usefulness of digital imaging in clinical diagnostic radiology: computer-aided diagnosis. J Digit Imaging. 1995 Feb; 8(1 Suppl 1):2-7. View in: PubMed

  237. Nishikawa RM, Giger ML, Doi K, Vyborny CJ, Schmidt RA. Computer-aided detection of clustered microcalcifications on digital mammograms. Med Biol Eng Comput. 1995 Mar; 33(2):174-8. View in: PubMed

  238. Wu YC, Doi K, Giger ML. Detection of lung nodules in digital chest radiographs using artificial neural networks: a pilot study. J Digit Imaging. 1995 May; 8(2):88-94. View in: PubMed

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  240. Giger ML, Doi K, Metz CE. Investigation of basic imaging properties in digital radiography. 2. Noise Wiener spectrum. Med Phys. 1984 Nov-Dec; 11(6):797-805. View in: PubMed

  241. Fujita H, Doi K, Giger ML. Investigation of basic imaging properties in digital radiography. 6. MTFs of II-TV digital imaging systems. Med Phys. 1985 Nov-Dec; 12(6):713-20. View in: PubMed

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  243. Fujita H, Doi K, Giger ML, Chan HP. Investigation of basic imaging properties in digital radiography. 5. Characteristic curves of II-TV digital systems. Med Phys. 1986 Jan-Feb; 13(1):13-8. View in: PubMed

  244. Fujita H, Doi K, Chan HP, Giger ML, Duda EE. Dynamic and static phantoms for evaluation of digital subtraction angiographic systems. Radiology. 1985 Jun; 155(3):799-803. View in: PubMed

  245. Kume Y, Doi K, Ohara K, Giger ML. Investigation of basic imaging properties in digital radiography 10. Structure mottle of II-TV digital imaging systems. Med Phys. 1986 Nov-Dec; 13(6):843-9. View in: PubMed

  246. Doi K, Fujita H, Ohara K, Ono K, Matsui H, Giger ML, Chan HP. Digital radiographic imaging system with multiple-slit scanning x-ray beam: preliminary report. Radiology. 1986 Nov; 161(2):513-8. View in: PubMed

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  248. Ohara K, Chan HP, Doi K, Giger ML, Fujita H. Investigation of basic imaging properties in digital radiography. 8. Detection of simulated low-contrast objects in digital subtraction angiographic images. Med Phys. 1986 May-Jun; 13(3):304-11. View in: PubMed

  249. Giger ML, Doi K. Effect of pixel size on detectability of low-contrast signals in digital radiography. J Opt Soc Am A. 1987 May; 4(5):966-75. View in: PubMed

  250. Fujita H, Doi K, MacMahon H, Kume Y, Giger ML, Hoffmann KR, Katafuchi T, Ohara K, Chan HP. Basic imaging properties of a large image intensifier-TV digital chest radiographic system. Invest Radiol. 1987 Apr; 22(4):328-35. View in: PubMed

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  252. MacMahon H, Metz CE, Doi K, Kim T, Giger ML, Chan HP. Digital chest radiography: effect on diagnostic accuracy of hard copy, conventional video, and reversed gray scale video display formats. Radiology. 1988 Sep; 168(3):669-73. View in: PubMed

  253. Fujita H, Giger ML, Doi K. Investigation of basic imaging properties in digital radiography. 12. Effect of matrix configuration on spatial resolution. Med Phys. 1988 May-Jun; 15(3):384-90. View in: PubMed

  254. Giger ML, Doi K, MacMahon H. Image feature analysis and computer-aided diagnosis in digital radiography. 3. Automated detection of nodules in peripheral lung fields. Med Phys. 1988 Mar-Apr; 15(2):158-66. View in: PubMed

  255. Cook LT, Giger ML, Wetzel LH, Murphey MD, Batnitzky S. Digitized film radiography. Invest Radiol. 1989 Nov; 24(11):910-6. View in: PubMed

  256. Fraser RG, Sanders C, Barnes GT, MacMahon H, Giger ML, Doi K, Templeton AW, Cox GG, Dwyer SJ, Merritt CR, et al. Digital imaging of the chest. Radiology. 1989 May; 171(2):297-307. View in: PubMed

  257. Ohara K, Doi K, Metz CE, Giger ML. Investigation of basic imaging properties in digital radiography. 13. Effect of simple structured noise on the detectability of simulated stenotic lesions. Med Phys. 1989 Jan-Feb; 16(1):14-21. View in: PubMed

  258. MacMahon H, Doi K, Chan HP, Giger ML, Katsuragawa S, Nakamori N. Computer-aided diagnosis in chest radiology. J Thorac Imaging. 1990 Jan; 5(1):67-76. View in: PubMed

  259. Giger ML, Doi K, MacMahon H, Metz CE, Yin FF. Pulmonary nodules: computer-aided detection in digital chest images. Radiographics. 1990 Jan; 10(1):41-51. View in: PubMed

  260. Yin FF, Giger ML, Doi K. Measurement of the presampling modulation transfer function of film digitizers using a curve fitting technique. Med Phys. 1990 Nov-Dec; 17(6):962-6. View in: PubMed

  261. Asada N, Doi K, MacMahon H, Montner SM, Giger ML, Abe C, Wu Y. Potential usefulness of an artificial neural network for differential diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases: pilot study. Radiology. 1990 Dec; 177(3):857-60. View in: PubMed

  262. Giger ML, Ahn N, Doi K, MacMahon H, Metz CE. Computerized detection of pulmonary nodules in digital chest images: use of morphological filters in reducing false-positive detections. Med Phys. 1990 Sep-Oct; 17(5):861-5. View in: PubMed

  263. Schmidt RA, Doi K, Sekiya M, Xu XW, Giger ML, Lu CT, Mojtahedi S, MacMahon H. Evaluation of radiographs developed by a new ultrarapid film processing system. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1990 May; 154(5):1107-10. View in: PubMed

  264. MacMahon H, Sanada S, Doi K, Giger M, Xu XW, Yin FF, Montner SM, Carlin M. Direct comparison of conventional and computed radiography with a dual-image recording technique. Radiographics. 1991 Mar; 11(2):259-68. View in: PubMed

  265. MacMahon H, Doi K, Sanada S, Montner SM, Giger ML, Metz CE, Nakamori N, Yin FF, Xu XW, Yonekawa H, et al. Data compression: effect on diagnostic accuracy in digital chest radiography. Radiology. 1991 Jan; 178(1):175-9. View in: PubMed

  266. Yin FF, Giger ML, Doi K, Metz CE, Vyborny CJ, Schmidt RA. Computerized detection of masses in digital mammograms: analysis of bilateral subtraction images. Med Phys. 1991 Sep-Oct; 18(5):955-63. View in: PubMed

  267. Sanada S, Doi K, Xu XW, Yin FF, Giger ML, MacMahon H. Comparison of imaging properties of a computed radiography system and screen-film systems. Med Phys. 1991 May-Jun; 18(3):414-20. View in: PubMed

  268. Yin FF, Giger ML, Doi K, Yoshimura H, Xu XW, Nishikawa RM. Evaluation of imaging properties of a laser film digitizer. Phys Med Biol. 1992 Jan; 37(1):273-80. View in: PubMed

  269. Matsumoto T, Yoshimura H, Giger ML, Doi K, MacMahon H, Montner SM, Nakanishi T. Potential usefulness of computerized nodule detection in screening programs for lung cancer. Invest Radiol. 1992 Jun; 27(6):471-5. View in: PubMed

  270. Yoshimura H, Giger ML, Doi K, MacMahon H, Montner SM. Computerized scheme for the detection of pulmonary nodules. A nonlinear filtering technique. Invest Radiol. 1992 Feb; 27(2):124-9. View in: PubMed

  271. Doi K, Giger ML, MacMahon H, Hoffmann KR, Nishikawa RM, Schmidt RA, Chua KG, Katsuragawa S, Nakamori N, Sanada S, et al. Computer-aided diagnosis: development of automated schemes for quantitative analysis of radiographic images. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 1992 Apr; 13(2):140-52. View in: PubMed

  272. Wu Y, Doi K, Giger ML, Nishikawa RM. Computerized detection of clustered microcalcifications in digital mammograms: applications of artificial neural networks. Med Phys. 1992 May-Jun; 19(3):555-60. View in: PubMed

  273. Brailean JC, Little D, Giger ML, Chen CT, Sullivan BJ. Application of the EM algorithm to radiographic images. Med Phys. 1992 Sep-Oct; 19(5):1175-82. View in: PubMed

  274. Matsumoto T, Yoshimura H, Doi K, Giger ML, Kano A, MacMahon H, Abe K, Montner SM. Image feature analysis of false-positive diagnoses produced by automated detection of lung nodules. Invest Radiol. 1992 Aug; 27(8):587-97. View in: PubMed